Outcomes, Clarity, Engagement, and Enthusiasm Abstract The research on teacher effectiveness has provided educational professionals with a relatively clear understanding of the fundamental principles for effective instructional practice. Teaching professors should use these empirically supported principles as a basis for the determination of their own instructional effectiveness in the classroom. The purpose of this article is to describe the Four Aces of Effective Teaching Outcomes, Clarity, Enthusiasm, and Engagement as a conceptual framework for increased self-reflective practice among teachers in higher education settings.
Each student earns reward based on their own behavior. No student is penalized for the behavior of anyone else.
Each student has access to rewards under exactly the same terms. Peer pressure is unlikely to be harnessed. Peers may root the target student on. InterdependentGroup-Oriented Contingency Reinforcement of the group is contingent on the behavior of the whole class.
Appropriate peer pressure which occurs naturally in the classroom is used to encourage positive behavioral choices.
Students may blame one student for the class not earning the reward. One student may sabotage earning the reward for the whole group.
Token Economy In an independent group-oriented contingency each student is only responsible for his or her own behavior. The only thing that makes this group-oriented is that everyone participating has access to the reinforcers on the same terms. The teacher could choose to have all of the students in the class participate or just the students that need assistance with improving their behavior.
Reasons for Effectiveness of Token Economies Maag, Tokens or points can be given immediately to be exchanged for reinforcers later. Tokens or points act as visual evidence of the progress they are making The value of tokens is unaffected by the mood of the person delivering the tokens.
Students are less likely to satiate on any one reinforcer since tokens can be exchanged for a variety of reinforcers. Tokens serve as a reminder to teachers to reinforce students, therefore students are reinforced more often.
Define and teach the desired behaviors Select tokens: Tokens, marbles in a jar, play money, points, etc. Create a bank for students to choose from. Set the number of tokens that can be earned for the desired behavior.
Some target behaviors may have higher values than others based on preferences of the teacher. A menu should be posted that is visible to all students.
Set up a record-keeping system where point or token totals can be tracked. Arrange a time for students to cash in tokens or points: Collaborative Contingency Contracting In a dependent group-oriented contingency one student or a small group of students may earn the reward for the entire class.
In the example provided, one student has difficulty with organization. The teacher could put the one student on a contract to earn a movie party for the entire class.
A contingency contract would be made with the student and be posted on his desk or another place visible to the student. Click here to view an example of collaborative contingency contracting.
The teacher would need to teach the student what an organized desk would look like.
This could easily be done in a visual that would act as a constant prompt to the student for what is required for an organized work area.For example, the teacher could engage students as they enter class by (a) asking the students to formulate questions based on the assigned readings for that class period and having peers answer them, (b) administering an informal pre-test on the lesson's key concepts, (c) allowing students to work in small groups to answer teacher-directed.
Kane and Staiger’s () alternative approach that uses estimates teachers could have strong impacts on student achievement, even if these teachers were replaced permanently with just average teachers. some unsuccessful teachers to receive high.
|Conversations||Preventing School Failure; Spring, Vol. It is difficult for learning to take place in chaotic environments.|
|Observational learning - Wikipedia||Once a teacher has developed a philosophy for classroom management, has created a plan for how the classroom should operate, has investigated the make-up of the class, and has secured information about school expectations, then the process of establishing classroom expectations can begin. Expectations communicate specific standards of behavior for the classroom.|
|Chapter 9: Motivation – why do my students care||September Volume 70 Number 1 Feedback for Learning Pages Seven Keys to Effective Feedback Grant Wiggins Advice, evaluation, grades—none of these provide the descriptive information that students need to reach their goals. What is true feedback—and how can it improve learning?|
In Research. The best way to approach this is to start by writing measurable, learning objectives. Aligning assessments with course expectations is much easier when you have written measurable objectives from the beginning.
In my view Bloom’s levels have zero support from psychology of thinking, learning or cognition or cognitive science or. If negative consequences are built into a context of a social contract and clear set of expectations, students learn not only to be responsible but also that there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship between their choices and their opportunities.
Have you observed a teacher who used a great deal of personal praise? What was the effect. Sep 17, · Pianta, dean of the Curry School, has studied teachers for years, and one of the first things he told me when we sat down together was that it is truly hard for teachers to control their expectations.
Many publications have pre-written reinforcement surveys that students can fill out or teacher’s can make up your own. In addition, teachers could ask their .