Inthe United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is a pledge among nations to promote fundamental rights as the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world.
National Patterns of Race Discrimination When people of color are killed in the inner city, when homeless people are killed, when the "nobodies" are killed, district attorneys do not seek to avenge their deaths.
But such racial patterns have appeared in study after study all over the country and over an extensive period of time. The agency reviewed 28 studies regarding both race of defendant and race of victim discrimination. Their review included studies utilizing various methodologies and degrees of statistical sophistication and examined such diverse states as California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Texas.
Their conclusion inbased on the vast amount of data collected, was unequivocal: This finding was remarkably consistent across data sets, states, data collection methods, and analytic techniques. The finding held for high, medium, and low quality studies. This study looked at cases processed in Georgia over a seven year period.
It showed that, even when controlling for the many variables which might make one case worse than another, defendants whose victims were white, faced, on average, odds of receiving a death sentence that were 4.
A pivotal study found their odds of dying were approximately 1. Such statistical evidence about the dangers of smoking led the Surgeon General to conclude that "cigarette smoking is a cause of coronary heart disease," 19 which, in turn, helped trigger legislation and significant reform.
Yet the correlation between race and the death penalty is much stronger and has been met with virtual silence. The study of racial disparities in Georgia was the basis for the most important case brought before the U.
Supreme Court on the issue of race and the death penalty, McCleskey v. For their work in what has become known as "the Baldus study," these researchers were awarded the Harry Kalven Prize for distinguished scholarship by the Law and Society Association. In nearly half of those states, the race of the defendant also served as a predictor of who received a death sentence.
These disparities reveal a disturbing and consistent trend indicating race-of-victim discrimination. In Illinois, the multiplier is 4, in Oklahoma it is 4. The results in the other states are from less well-controlled studies and are only suggestive. Researchers at the University of Louisville had found in that, as in other states, blacks who killed whites were more likely to receive the death penalty than any other offender-victim combination.
This biased use of the death penalty for the murder of those in the white community, but not those in the black community, led to the introduction of legislation allowing consideration of such patterns of racial disparities.
The bill, referred to as the "Racial Justice Act," failed in the Kentucky legislature in26 but was passed in It will permit race-based challenges to prosecutorial decisions to seek a death sentence. No Relief in the Courts Despite these pervasive patterns implying racial discrimination, courts have been closed to challenges raising this issue.
Supreme Court held that the defendant had to show that he was personally discriminated against in the course of the prosecution. The Race of the Decision-Makers The death penalty is essentially an arbitrary punishment.
There are no objective rules or guidelines for when a prosecutor should seek the death penalty, when a jury should recommend it, and when a judge should give it. This lack of objective, measurable standards ensures that the application of the death penalty will be discriminatory against racial, gender, and ethnic groups.
Jesse Jackson 30 As the analysis above indicates, racially biased decisions can readily enter the criminal justice system through the discretion given to prosecutors to selectively seek the death penalty in some cases but not others. The GAO review of race discrimination noted that "race of victim influence was found at all stages of the criminal justice process" and that "[t]he evidence for the race of victim influence was stronger for the earlier stages of the judicial process e.Studybay is an academic writing service for students: essays, term papers, dissertations and much more!
We're trusted and chosen by many students all over the world! PICTURES OF STATE EXECUTION CHAMBERS The Daily Intelligencer has collected pictures of execution chambers around the country (May 16, ).
Introduction. Bangladesh is endowed with a rich tradition and culture of philanthropy. Religions that attempted to overcome social stratification and seclusion flourished there in past centuries.
PICTURES OF STATE EXECUTION CHAMBERS The Daily Intelligencer has collected pictures of execution chambers around the country (May 16, ). The death penalty was again on the decline in , but the problems that accompany the finality of capital punishment remain..
This year, 23 people were executed—the second fewest executions in.
Top 10% Absolutely Positively the Best 30 Death Penalty Websites on the Internet (Top 1%) Death Penalty Information Center Probably the single most comprehensive and authoritative internet rersource on the death penalty, including hundreds of anti-death penalty articles, essays, and quotes on issues of deterrence, cost, execution of the .