The strength and efficiency of the U. In fact, such hysteria and misplaced attention urges our leaders to prioritize ineffective policy that demoralizes and demeans the true heroes that are helping contain the virus in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. Instead, we need to direct our attention, concern, and support, towards these fearless individuals and organizations treating, preventing, and containing Ebola on the ground in West Africa.
January This account of the WHO response gives a timeline and explanation of actions taken, including why the outbreaks were declared an international public health emergency in August It described measures taken by the Ministry of Health, together with WHO and other partners, to control the outbreak and prevent further spread.
Those measures included multidisciplinary teams deployed to the field to detect and manage cases and trace their contacts. MSF, which had a well-established presence in the region, rapidly set up isolation facilities.
The team was headed by a senior WHO field epidemiologist. The challenges observed included the wide geographical dispersion of cases in both Guinea and Liberia, cases in the capital city, Conakry, and a high level of public fear, anxiety, rumours, and misperceptions.
By mid-April, the cumulative totals in Guinea had risen to cases and deaths in six prefectures. More cases were being reported in Liberia, largely concentrated in Lofa county. Although the epidemic is still rife, we are hopeful that it will be contained and overcome shortly and that we will be able to mitigate its adverse impact on human lives, travel, economies and international trade.
In that same week, Guinea reported clinically compatible cases and deaths. Liberia reported 35 clinically compatible cases. Sierra Leone was investigating 3 cases that might be either Ebola virus disease or Lassa fever, a disease endemic in large parts of West Africa.
By 5 May, WHO had deployed experts to West Africa to assist in the response, including 68 experts deployed through its global surge mechanism, 10 external experts, and 33 international experts from GOARN partner institutions. Although Sierra Leone had not yet reported a confirmed case, vigilance was high and one expert was sent to support surveillance efforts there.
The expertise among deployed staff had been broadened beyond the traditional areas of epidemiology, laboratory services, infection prevention and control, clinical case management, and logistics to include expertise in medical anthropology, risk communication, and social mobilization.
The reason was clear: The purpose of the meeting was twofold: He credited much of this success to the permanent field presence of more than 70 WHO staff and the rapid deployment by WHO of two mobile laboratories.
Later in May, Sierra Leone reported its first 16 cases and 5 deaths, all concentrated in Kailahun district.
Within days, that number more than doubled. By early June, it was clear that large and fluid population movements over exceptionally porous borders were interfering with control measures, most notably contact tracing and monitoring during the day incubation period.
Additional epidemiologists were sent to support that effort. The sense of urgency increased on 23 June, when a second high-level meeting was held in Conakry.
Its members expressed a desire for WHO to lead the response more strongly as the only agency with the experience, seasoned senior staff, constitutional mandate, and country presence to do so.
A message and report conveying the need for more forceful leadership were sent to Dr Chan on 27 June. She immediately took personal responsibility for the WHO response.
Among her first steps, she declared a level 3 emergency — the highest level —and set in motion plans to hold an urgent high-level ministerial meeting with senior health officials from African countries, partners, Ebola survivors, representatives of airline and mining companies and financial donors, including executives from the African Development Bank.
The Emergency Committee was chaired by Dr Sam Zaramba, former Director-General of Health Services at Uganda’s Ministry of Health, who played a leading role in responding to that country’s large Ebola outbreak in The Ebola Response is highly complex. It requires the continuous effort by hundreds of different kinds of organizations and thousands of people to implement it quickly, effectively and efficiently. Countries large and small have stepped up to provide doctors, mobile clinics, and funding. These efforts show the immense value of international cooperation. This Issue Brief describes what has changed in the broader international Ebola response landscape since , and considers the status of U.S. government (U.S.) engagement in responses to Ebola.
The broadened range of participants reflected yet another set of problems: That meeting was held in Ghana from 2 to 3 July and resulted in both significant commitments of financial support and new strategies to accelerate the operational response.
Key priorities identified included mobilizing community and religious leaders to improve Ebola awareness and understanding, as well as strengthening surveillance, case finding and contact tracing.
By that time, the areas of intense virus transmission were well known. Participants agreed to deploy additional staff to these areas and to commit additional country funding to the response.
The meeting further recommended the establishment of a WHO sub-regional Ebola outbreak coordination centre in Conakry, which became operational on 25 July.
Also in early July, WHO issued the results of an analysis of the situation in the three countries and risk factors for the continuing spread of the disease. The main risk factors amplifying the outbreaks were identified as high-risk cultural practices and traditional beliefs, extensive population movements within countries and across borders, and inadequate coverage with effective containment measures.
The magnitude of the task ahead was also recognized:The Ebola Response is highly complex. It requires the continuous effort by hundreds of different kinds of organizations and thousands of people to implement it quickly, effectively and efficiently.
Countries large and small have stepped up to provide doctors, mobile clinics, and funding. These efforts show the immense value of international cooperation. The Ebola Virus outbreak derailed lives and livelihoods in some of the most vulnerable countries in the world, infecting over 28, people in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, killing 11, In response, USAID led a U.S.
Government effort, to contain the disease and bring the number of cases to zero. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa.
People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus. Home Essays Ebola and the role of Ebola and the role of international organizations Topics: United Nations, Ebola, World Health Organization Pages: 7 ( words) Published: December 2, The two health organizations that have played the most important roles in the current Ebola epidemic are the World Health Organization, founded in , and Doctors without Borders, founded in But international health organizations in Africa have a long and complicated history.
Ebola: Teaching Points for Nurse Educators • Communication specialists help disseminate current information about Ebola and control measures. What is the role of leaders and managers in addressing Ebola? international guidelines. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.