This is different from the concept of a model, which is an abstraction that describes one or more aspects of a problem or a potential solution addressing a problem.
I struggled to keep my legs in the air with my toes pointing towards what I thought was the faint outline of the Southern Cross rising in the evening sky.
With my hands under my hips — and butt perched against a large rock for support — I peddled an imaginary upside down bicycle in the air to pass the time as I struggled to make sure my new gut ecosystem stayed put inside me. With my butt cheeks flexed and my, you know what puckered, I wondered if I had just made a terrible mistake.
Could I really displace my western gut microbial ecosystem with that of a man, who, days before had dined on animals as diverse as zebra and monkey, possessed one of the most diverse gut microbiomes of any person in the world?
Would my immune system soon freak out at the presence of what should be some familiar Old microbial Friends now setting up shop throughout the slimy vastness of my gastrointestinal tract?
Or had I just unwittingly infected myself with some lethal bacteria or virus? The pros and cons — mostly cons — of my turkey basting activities raced through my anxious mind as I peddled my way into the evening. Hadza hunter carrying his share of a recent zebra kill.
My colleagues and I have been working and living amongst the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania for over a year now. The human samples have mostly included stool fecesbut also swabs of hands, foreheads, bottoms of feet, tongues some spitbreast milk from mothers, and so on.
Environmental sampling has included swabs of the plants and other foods they consume — like berries, roots, honey, etc. For the animals, we collect feces and when possible swabs of the stomach contents of larger animals — all of which end up covering the Hadza sooner or later during butchering see little blurb in Nature titled Please Pass the Microbes.
We also swab their homes — inside and out — along with the various water sources. In short, we swab everything including the researchers while in the field. Additional collaborators working on various analysis are scattered at universities in the US and Europe.
Twenty years of rainfall in Hadza Land taken at Kisema Ngeda. Among many things, we are interested in how Hadza microbes — along with their environmental microbes water, homes, plants and animals — shift between the wet and dry seasons. Due to some unique geography and global weather patternsEast Africa experiences a striking wet and dry season — essentially 6 months of on and off rain, followed by almost none see figure.
This reality means that during the dry season, as water holes dry up, the Hadza kill a lot more animals as dwindling water sources make the animals more predictable and easier to shoot with their poison arrows from hunting blinds aka ambush hunting.
An increase in protein and fat from animals means a drop off in other caloric resources, mainly plants, as the Hadza will often binge on meat when possible note they have no storage so everything is eaten in a short period of time.
During the wet season when Hadza Land is awash in greenery and flowers, the Hadza enjoy an abundance of wild honey fat of the larvae included and massive stands of sugary berries. With the coming of the rains larger animals are more scattered and thus harder to kill, so make up less of the daily calories though its highly variable from day-to-day and week-to-week and from camp-to-camp.
No matter the season, fibrous baobab fruit and subsurface tubers are a daily constant for the Hadza. Yes, they consume lots and lots of dietary fiber!
The impact of seasonality on the Hadza and their microbial environment is an interesting and possibly important question as it relates to what a healthier microbiome might have looked like before the niceties and medications of late whacked the crap out of our gut bugs in the so-called modern world.
Should we really strive for a certain composition of gut microbes as many modern buggy-like products infer — such as those found in over the counter probiotics, various drinks and foods? Or does the reality of our seasonal past reveal that our gut microbiome is a shape shifting metabolic organ pulling the strings on our health and well being in a bi- or even tri-annual circadian-like rhythm?
Said differently, and with all due respect to the brilliant Harvard researcher Richard Wrangham of fire made us human fameis seasonality and its impact on our symbiotic microbes more responsible for what makes us human?
I like to think it might — plus, Seasonal Homo is kind of catchy. The Hadza are particularly microbially interesting over, say, remote groups in South America, as they still live in a part of Africa that purportedly gave rise to our genus Homo. However, Lee Berger and his colleagues working new fossil sites in South Africa are giving East Africa a run for its money for the prize for which part of Africa holds the honor to the geographical cradle of humanity.
It is this foraging lifestyle that has endowed the Hadza with an extraordinary diversity of bacteria.Login to access the Upswing Virtual Learning Center for Houston Community College. Figure srmvision.com relationship between models, documents, source code, and documentation.
3. Why Do People Document?. Agile developers recognize that documentation is an intrinsic part of any system, the creation and maintenance of which is a "necessary evil" to some and an enjoyable task for others, an aspect of software development that can be made agile when you choose to do so.
AMAS is a project destined to enhance exchange of knowledge to. improve quality of learning, research and public service in Africa. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
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