Presocratic Thought An analysis of Presocratic thought presents some difficulties. Even these purportedly verbatim words often come to us in quotation from other sources, so it is difficult, if not impossible, to attribute with certainty a definite position to any one thinker. Presocratic thought marks a decisive turn away from mythological accounts towards rational explanations of the cosmos. Indeed, some Presocratics openly criticize and ridicule traditional Greek mythology, while others simply explain the world and its causes in material terms.
Metaphysics substance, cause, form, potentiality Nicomachean Ethics soul, happiness, virtue, friendship Eudemain Ethics Politics best states, utopias, constitutions, revolutions Rhetoric elements of forensic and political debate Poetics tragedy, epic poetry 3.
From their perspective, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term "logic" as equivalent to verbal reasoning. They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would ask in gaining knowledge of an object.
For example, we ask, first, what a thing is, then how great it is, next of what kind it is. Substance is always regarded as the most important of these. Substances are further divided into first and second: Notions when isolated do not in themselves express either truth or falsehood: The elements of such a proposition are the noun substantive and the verb.
The combination of words gives rise to rational speech and thought, conveys a meaning both in its parts and as a whole. The truth or falsity of propositions is determined by their agreement or disagreement with the facts they represent.
Thus propositions are either affirmative or negative, each of which again may be either universal or particular or undesignated.
A definition, for Aristotle is a statement of the essential character of a subject, and involves both the genus and the difference. To get at a true definition we must find out those qualities within the genus which taken separately are wider than the subject to be defined, but taken together are precisely equal to it.
For example, "prime," "odd," and "number" are each wider than "triplet" that is, a collection of any three items, such as three rocks ; but taken together they are just equal to it.
The genus definition must be formed so that no species is left out. Having determined the genus and species, we must next find the points of similarity in the species separately and then consider the common characteristics of different species.
Definitions may be imperfect by 1 being obscure, 2 by being too wide, or 3 by not stating the essential and fundamental attributes.
Obscurity may arise from the use of equivocal expressions, of metaphorical phrases, or of eccentric words. The heart of Aristotle's logic is the syllogism, the classic example of which is as follows: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
The syllogistic form of logical argumentation dominated logic for 2, years until the rise of modern propositional and predicate logic thanks to Frege, Russell, and others.
Aristotle begins by sketching the history of philosophy.
For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic necessities were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which religious myth gave only provisional satisfaction. The earliest speculators i. Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander were philosophers of nature.
The Pythagoreans succeeded these with mathematical abstractions.
The level of pure thought was reached partly in the Eleatic philosophers such as Parmenides and Anaxagoras, but more completely in the work of Socrates. Socrates' contribution was the expression of general conceptions in the form of definitions, which he arrived at by induction and analogy.
For Aristotle, the subject of metaphysics deals with the first principles of scientific knowledge and the ultimate conditions of all existence. More specifically, it deals with existence in its most fundamental state i.
This can be contrasted with mathematics which deals with existence in terms of lines or angles, and not existence as it is in itself. In its universal character, metaphysics superficially resembles dialectics and sophistry.
However, it differs from dialectics which is tentative, and it differs from sophistry which is a pretence of knowledge without the reality.Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c.
to Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially astronomy, mathematics. The most important areas of Greek achievement were math and science. They achieved all kinds of things in the areas of psychology, astronomy, geometry, biology, physics, and .
IBN AL-BAITAR (DIED A.D.) Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi was one of the greatest scientists of Muslim Spain and was the greatest botanist and pharmacist of the Middle Ages. Bad News About Christianity, The Persecution of Philosophers.
Roger Bacon (c. –). Bacon, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed emphasis on the study of nature through empirical methods.
Apr 22, · Whether it be astrology, mathematics, biology, engineering, medicine or linguistics, nearly all of the information we take for granted today was first discovered by the ancient Greeks.
As if all of this wasn't enough, when it comes to the realm of art–including literature, music, architecture, design and the performing arts–the Greeks Reviews: The development of the scientific method involves some of the most enlightened cultures in history, as well as some great scientists, philosophers and theologians..
As well as looking at the changes in the philosophy underpinning scientific discovery, we cannot forget some of the tools that make science possible, including library indexing and peer reviewed scientific journals.